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Browse All Categories. IDR Browse over categories. Are you sure you want to delete this list? List's Title. List's Description. Delete List. ALL 11 Paperback 6 Hardcover 5. Stock Status. ALL 11 Available ALL 11 English Publication Year. Display 1 - 11 from 11 results. An occult classic Since its first publication in , The Kybalion, Hermetic Philosophy by Three Initiates, has been in constant demand by students and investigators of the Secret Doctrines.
It is a modern addition to the body of work devoted to Hermes Trismegistus, an icon of ancient teachings that reveal the path to self transformation.
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In this revised edition, we have corrected many editorial issues inherent within the original text, creating a clearer presentation of the book's message: br br The Seven Hermetic Principles, or axioms: br - Principle of Mentalism br - Principle of Correspondence br - Principle of Vibration br - Principle.. Read More. Price incl. Add to My List.
Added to Cart. The Holy Piby. Capturing hearts and minds with its message of self-reliance and self-determination, it is a theology that sees all Africans as the chosen people of God and Ethiopia i. Africa as the promised land. The Holy Piby is the most important proto-Rastafari text and a predominant source of influence for the birth of the religion. The Kybalion - Revised and Updated Edition.
The Kybalion: A Study of The Hermetic Philosophy of Ancient Egypt and Greece is a relatively modern addition to the body of work devoted to Hermes, an icon of ancient teachings that reveal the path to self transformation. In this revised edition, we have corrected many editorial issues inherent within the original text, creating a clearer presentation of the book's message: The Seven Hermetic Principles.
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These principles complement other Hermetic teachings and provide a foundation for your own spiritual awakening. As the book states, "The lips of wisdom are closed, except to the ears of understanding. A financial classic, Lombard Street continues to be widely read by those with a professional interest in the finance and banking industry'--more than a century after its first publication in Bagehot was an economist, political analyst and editor-in-chief of The Economist. In sum, whether it be with regard to race, and gender, on one hand, or sexual orientation, criminality, mental illness, and obesity, on the other, arguments for underlying genetic contributions elicit more fatalistic reactions than arguments for underlying experiential factors, even when the potency of the two classes of arguments is carefully posed in equivalent terms e.
People come to identify with different cultures if they learn that genes underlie their race No et al. Importantly, all of the genetic arguments that participants encountered in the above studies are examples of weak genetic explanations; it is not rational to think differently of these outcomes based on the kinds of genetic information that were provided.
When characteristics of certain social group members are perceived to be linked with genetics, they are increasingly perceived as immutable, possessing a specific etiology, homogeneous, and natural. These perceptions can lead to increased stereotyping and prejudice especially when the membership in a social category is present at birth and is largely immutable, such as in the case of race and gender. Yet, when membership in a category is intimately tied to behavioral manifestations e. Further, in some situations, the increased perception of naturalness that stems from a perceived genetic etiology may trigger the naturalistic fallacy that ameliorates negative evaluations.
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Moreover, it is worth noting that behavioral genetics research suggests that almost all behaviors are, to a certain degree, heritable Bouchard, ; Turkheimer, , suggesting that these kinds of genetic essentialist biases may emerge in almost all domains in which heritability can be shown. For example, it seems likely that genetic essentialist biases would also be evident in how people view alcoholism or other addictive behaviors, how they consider the severity and prognosis of diseases, or how they consider various kinds of traits, attitudes, and abilities e.
This research reveals that not all scientific arguments are created equal, at least, not in terms of how they impact people who learn of those arguments.
Scientific claims that reference genes are perceived as more deterministic compared with equivalent claims that reference environmental forces e. Even though genes influence most life outcomes probabilistically, with their expression being dependent on the presence of certain environmental variables, and in interaction with other genes, when people encounter genetic arguments their essentialist biases are activated, and they can come to view those outcomes in strikingly different ways.
Genes, at least as most lay people conceive of them, can provide an unassailable materialistic explanation for why people act in the ways that they do. People with little formal training in genetics are regularly exposed to arguments regarding heritable qualities of humans, and have been for centuries. The power of genetic essentialist biases is evident in the repeated rise of eugenic ideologies across history. We submit that these ideologies follow directly from the ways that people perceive genetic foundations to be immutable, homogeneous, and fundamental to human character.
When genes are perceived to be the locus of causality then it follows that efforts to improve humanity will focus on improving genes or the gene pool, more generally. We anticipate that eugenic ideologies will continue to arise as people try to integrate their social worldviews with their encounters with genetic discoveries relating to human characteristics.
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Below we briefly describe the history of eugenics and how it relates to genetic essentialism. That is, it was understood that people possess a heritable essence that varies in quality across individuals, although the mechanisms for this inheritance were not yet understood.
It logically follows from this premise that if one wants to improve humanity, one could cultivate this heritable essence for future generations. Eugenic ideologies were not just enticing to those with limited understanding of heritability or genes. In those early days, genetics was barely distinguishable from eugenics; for example, the entire founding editorial board of the American journal Genetics endorsed the eugenics movement Paul, New organizations, such as the American Eugenic Society and Planned Parenthood, sprung up to champion eugenic ideologies, while established groups such as the American Breeding Association aligned themselves with it Black, Popular exposure even reached local fairs, in multiple continents, where positive eugenics were encouraged by competitions that offered trophies to the most eugenically fit families, couples, and babies Paul, ; Robertson, forthcoming.
Rather, the abrupt demise of the eugenics movement was largely due to a growing comprehension of and disgust with the inhumanity that eugenics policies entailed. By the early s the majority of the states in the US had legislated restrictions on marriage for the mentally deficient, on the explicit basis of eugenic grounds, and these were extended to limitations on interracial marriages Black, Canada similarly legalized compulsory sterilizations in two provinces Dowbiggin, These horrors of North American eugenics policies were ultimately trumped by the rise of National Socialism in Europe and its overt embrace of eugenic racial ideologies.
Ultimately, it was the revelation of the magnitude of the carnage committed by the Nazis that caused the public and the vast majority of the scientific community to reject eugenic ideology more completely than any scientific refutation ever had Black, A rapidly growing understanding of genetic identification and manipulation has led to such advancements as dietary interventions for monogenic disorders such as phenylketonuria, prophylactic mastectomies for carriers of alleles associated with breast cancer, experimental gene therapy for diseases such as severe combined immunodeficiency, and preimplantation of genetic diagnoses of diseases, such as Tay-Sachs, in embryos, to name a few.
Our point here is to underscore that when people understand genes as the underlying causes of life outcomes, they often aspire to control their genes in ways to improve those outcomes. Our genetic essentialist biases make it easy for us to assume that we should consider genes as the ultimate solution to social problems, and that efforts to improve our lives should prioritize research on genetic technologies ahead of other kinds of interventions, which could prove to be more effective or cost-efficient.
As noted by Horwitz , p. In sum, the eugenics ideologies of the past did not flourish by chance, nor did they necessarily follow from any particular scientific discoveries. When people encounter some genetic arguments they are more likely to think of groups of people as homogenous and discrete, with their associated conditions being an immutable product of their underlying genes- ideas that share much in common with the logic of eugenics.
We submit that it was this attraction that led large numbers of normally good-natured people to consider and justify many morally repugnant acts of the early 20 th century in a misguided effort to improve the human race. Direct research on this question is largely limited at this point, but we suggest that genetic essentialist biases can, in some situations, foster the kinds of thinking that underlie eugenic perspectives.
As in the case of other scientific reporting, complex and difficult-to-understand scientific phenomena are simplified for the media audience. Because many, if not most, people derive their knowledge of genes largely from the media, it is important to consider how genetics research is communicated. Conrad examined in much detail the ways the media contribute to genetic determinism. He noted a number of biases in the ways genetic findings are communicated that make the genes appear to play a more central and deterministic role than the data actually suggest.
First, research findings that portray genes as a cause of diseases and behaviors often receive far more coverage compared with later disconfirmations.
And disconfirmations are an especially frequent occurrence in genetics research, given the small effect sizes of most associations Rutter, The systematic discrepancy in exposure to genetic discoveries versus their disconfirmations may lead to an inflated view of genes as the primary causes of a variety of human phenomena. Second, Conrad , claims that the media consistently provide an overly simplified picture of genetic research. Dubbed the OGOD concept one gene, one disease , it assumes a one-to-one deterministic relationship between a specific gene and a specific disease or trait which indicates a strong genetic explanation.
The OGOD phenomenon is most evident in the titles of media reports. Although such one-to-one relationships do exist in monogenic diseases e. In sum, exposure to genetic arguments regarding sex differences in math performance affected both attitudes and behaviors of girls towards math. It remains to be seen whether media coverage of other kinds of genetic findings would yield a similar pattern of findings.
Although genetics research is frequently oversimplified in media accounts, the media are not solely responsible for this over-simplification. Press releases based on initial, limited studies still make strong claims despite a genetic research track record riddled with disconfirmations. One indication of the role scientists have in conveying genetic determinism comes from research that found that the main media outlets in a number of countries typically do not greatly exaggerate genetic findings.
First, scientists label the genes they study in ways that suggest an OGOD relation, in that the descriptions of genes often suggest a higher probability that carriers will show the related condition than is likely the case. The popular names of these genes fail to reflect this limited involvement, and readers likely infer that the gene plays a more central role in the diseases than they do Rothman, A second common essentialism-evoking theme, which often appears in scientific discussions of genetics, is the use of essence-based metaphors to describe the human genome.
These depictions make explicit reference to the genome as a sort of blueprint underlying human nature.
A third common essentialism-provoking theme is that genes are sometimes afforded a form of agency that may contribute to a mystical view of them as conscious entities that strip the person of his or her will. This phenomenon contributes to essentialist expressions in public discourses about genetics. In sum, language plays a significant role in the way we think e. The enduring essentialist framing of information regarding genotype-phenotype associations may play a key role in facilitating genetic essentialism.
At the same time, genetic essentialist biases themselves lead scientists and reporters alike to summarize their research using overly simplifying OGOD descriptors, agentic portrayals, and essence-based metaphors.
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