One expression that combines synecdoche and metonymy in which a word normally associated with something is substituted for the term usually naming that thing is "boob tube," meaning "television. In Chinese literature, the Tang period is considered the golden age of Chinese poetry, sculpture, and Buddhism.
The prosperous Tang dynasty was also an era of development of a highly educated society, synonymous with the birth of famous poems created by individuals such as Li Bai and Du Fu. In the history of Chinese literature, historians usually judge Tang poetry, Yuan Qu-poetry, and Song Ci-poetry as triangular-balanced peaks of literature. He wanted poems that cultivated the character of the reader. Today, there exist some new compositions of three hundred Tang poems containing different works because the attitude to poetry in the Qing period, as an educational instrument, is not held so firmly today.
Sun selected Tang poems for their popularity and their effectiveness in moulding the reader's character. Representing equally well each of the classical poetic forms as well as the best works by the most prominent Tang poets, Sun's collection became a "best seller" soon after its publication. Used for centuries since to teach elementary students to read and write, it is still a classic today, its popularity undiminished. Nearly every Chinese household owns a copy of Tang Shi and poems from it are still included in textbooks and are assigned to be memorized by students. This selection holds 43 representative Tang poems by major and minor poets.
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They illustrate seven poetic forms of this dynasty:. They have been translated into English by the greatest living translator of Chinese poetry into English, Xu Yuanchong, as a testimony to its compiler's intent: "Learning three hundred Tang poems by heart, you can chant poems though you know not the art.
Japanese form of five lines with five, seven, five, seven, and seven syllables, 31 in all. English examples exist by Amy Lowell and Adelaide Crapsey. A golf ball in flight marks out a delicately skewed parabola that fractals on embracing greenly arithmetic turf. Spelling out a word, a phrase, or name vertically in sequence down the last letters of verse lines in a poem. See also Acrostic. An Italian stanzaic form, used by Dante in his Divina Commedia , consisting of tercets with interwoven rhymes, aba bcb dcd efe The original Italian form was iambic pentameter, plus one syllable.
Four feet, a measure made up of four feet. Shakespeare 's " Fear no more the heat of the sun " is an example. The poet's attitude to the poem's subject as the reader interprets that, sometimes through the tone of the persona or speaker who may feel quite differently. Three feet; sometimes termed tripody, a triple foot, one measure made up of three feet. An example is Percy Bysshe Shelley 's " To a Skylark ," which uses trochaic trimeters for the first two lines of each stanza.
An eight-line stanza having just two rhymes and repeating the first line as the fourth and seventh lines, and the second line as the eighth.
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Examples are W. A three-syllable foot, or a three-line stanza, with a single rhyme. A metrical foot consisting of an accented syllable followed by an unaccented syllable. Examples of trochaic words include "garden" and "highway. A semantic figure of speech or of thought that varies the meaning of a word or passage. Examples include metaphor, metonymy, objectification, and personification.
A medieval commonplace that reveals the mutability of all things, the loss of all through death, by posing a series of questions that ask where the strong, the beautiful, and the good have gone. Examples are Thomas Nashe 's " Beauty is but a flower " and D. Sophisticated light verse of a kind appealing to "polite society.
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As a mass noun, poetry in general but in a non-judgmental sense ; and, as a regular noun, a line of poetry. A group of verse lines that make up a discourse unit, the first verse of which is sometimes indented, like a paragraph in prose. An Italian verse form consisting of five three-line stanzas tercets and a final quatrain, possessing only two rhymes, repeating the first and third lines of the first stanza alternately in the following stanzas, and combining those two refrain lines into the final couplet in the quatrain.
A medieval French poetic form, consisting of short lines in stanzas with only two rhymes, where the final rhyme of one stanza becomes the main rhyme of the next. An alliterative rhyming quatrain with four-stress lines that follows the so-called bob, known together as a bob-and-wheel.
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Thomas Thomas's Latin-English dictionary translates this as "A figure whereby many clauses are ioyned with one verb," but zeugma also describes the linking of two nouns with a verb as long as the verb's meaning is altered in the shift from one noun to another. You are here Home.
Search form Search. Click one of the letters above to advance the page to terms beginning with that letter. Accentual-syllabic verse Lines whose rhythm arises by the number and alternation of its stressed and unstressed syllables, organized into feet.
Samuel Johnson 's great dictionary quotes John Dryden : Leave writing plays, and choose for thy command Some peaceful province in acrostick land: There thou may'st wings display, and altars raise, And torture one poor word ten thousand ways. See also Telestich. Action poetry Verse written for performance by several voices.
Alcaics A four-line Classical stanza named after Alcaeus, a Greek poet, with a predominantly dactylic metre, imitated by Alfred Lord Tennyson 's poem, " Milton.
Alliteration Using the same consonant to start two or more stressed words or syllables in a phrase or verse line, or using a series of vowels to begin such words or syllables in sequence. Allusion A reference to a historical, mythic, or literary person, place, event, movement, etc. Ambiguity A statement with two or more meanings that may seem to exclude one another in the context.
Amplification Rhetorical figures of speech that repeat and vary the expression of a thought.
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Anachronism Someone or something belonging to another time period than the one in which it is described as being. See also Aposiopesis Anacreontic verse Imitations of the 6th-century B. Anacrucis One or two unstressed syllables at the beginning of a line that are unnecessary to the metre. Anagram A word spelled out by rearranging the letters of another word. Analogue Usually a semantic or narrative feature in one work said to resemble something in another work, without necessarily implying that a cause-and-effect relationship exists as would be the case with source and influence.
Anthropomorphism A figure of speech where the poet characterizes an abstract thing or object as if it were a person. Antispast Greek and Latin metrical foot consisting of short, long, long, and short syllables i. Antithesis Contrasting or combining two terms, phrases, or clauses with opposed or antithetical meanings. Antonymy Semantic contrasts.
Aphesis The omission of the initial syllable of a word. Aphorism One writer's citation of another, known author's truism or pithy remark. Apocope The omission of the last syllable of a word. Aporia Explained by Samuel Johnson , in his great dictionary , as "a figure in rhetorick, by which the speaker shews, that he doubts where to begin for the multitude of matter, or what to say in some strange and ambiguous thing; and doth, as it were, argue the case with himself. Archaism Using obsolete or archaic words when current alternatives are available.
Archetype Something in the world, and described in literature, that, according to the psychologist Karl Jung, manifests a dominant theme in the collective unconscious of human beings. Asclepiad A Classical metrical line made up of a spondee, two or three choriambs, and one iamb or spondee, i. Aureate language Polysyllabic Latinate poetic diction employed especially by the Scottish Chaucerians. Ballad A popular song, often recited aloud, narrating a story, and passed down orally. Ballad stanza Quatrain rhyming abcb and alternating four-stress and three-stress lines. Ballade Poem with three seven-, eight-, or ten-line stanzas and refrain.
Bob A one-foot line in certain stanzaic forms of medieval alliterative poetry, such as Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Bombast Hyperbolic or wildly exaggerating speech, so-called after a kind of cotton stuffing. Bretan lay Brief narrative poems about Arthurian subjects. Broadside ballads Poems printed on one side of a single sheet during the Renaissance period. Broken rhyme see Rhyme.
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Burden The choric line or lines that signal the end or the beginning of a stanza in a carol or hymn. Burlesque A work caricaturing another serious work. Burns stanza or meter Six-line stanza with the rhyme scheme aaabab where a is a tetrameter line, and b is a dimeter line.
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