Finally, probably the most important difference between the Vintage and Mondadori editions concerns the footnote apparatus. We will discuss the function of the Vintage footnotes below. Let us now turn to a discussion of the various translation techniques used in the Spanish editions of BWLOW to convey the various forms of heteroglossia present in the ST.
One strategy has been the reintroduction of English elements in the TT. These words have to be approached as conventionalized keys, which serve to indicate variations in register and tone. Interestingly, when the English from the ST is left untranslated, it is normalized, as in the following example, where the ungrammatical negative imperative is turned into a correct English clause:. A dominant strategy for conveying the interlingual variation is its substitution by intralingual variation, i.
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This use of regional forms offsets on a lexical level what gets lost on a syntactic level, where the disruptive grammar of the original is to a certain degree flattened out through the use of idiomatic Spanish sentences. The following example illustrates the frequent lexical innovations of the TT:. On the one hand, we can observe how lexical elements from the ST are rendered by locally marked variants.
Note that, in this way, the alliterating structure of the ST bravos on the bus falls away, but this is compensated for by the rhythmic stress pattern and colorful word choice of the TT. On the other hand, we should note that buenmosos is corrected as buenmozos in order to conform to standard spelling. In general, the Spanish syntax of the translation is much closer to the norm than the English syntax of the ST. The vernacular dimension is restored by lexical means, through the insertion of local words and phrases. The narrative voice becomes less racially marked as well.
This is evident if we consider the translation of the word nigger. The implication is, of course, that Oscar is not man enough to subdue his girlfriend, which once again reveals his inability to observe the male-dominated social codes of Dominican culture, to the distress of his own mother, who, ironically, is a victim of that culture.
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In other examples, nigger is translated by impersonal constructions such as uno , cualquiera , the impersonal construction with se or hyperonymic forms such as los tipos or un muchacho. Another racialized form of address is Negro. Even though the word was created to avoid slurs like nigger , here too the racial inflection is entirely lost:.
Clearly, the neutral mi gente does not carry the same ambiguous connotations of racial uplift and betrayal associated with capitalized Negro in English. Instead, it identifies the narratee in the translated text with the Dominican people in general. In this way, the invasion is redescribed as part of the shared knowledge of Dominican people rather than one of the American interventions in the Caribbean. A final example brings together some of the translation strategies discussed above:. The slang expression no G is replaced by ni don pa na , which has some of the colloquial flavour of the original through the phonetic transcription of spoken language but is still more neutral and less ethnically marked.
Thus, girl is translated by hembra a sexist slur , and not by the more neutral chica. The Caribbean words maco and panas are not only more colloquial than their ST equivalents, they also add a further regional dimension. As regards the nerd talk, the conclusion can be fairly transparent: here, the translator has made use of neologisms and calques from the English language.
This is how Mondadori conveys the passage we discussed at the beginning of section 2. What really sets apart the two editions, however, is that Vintage offers no less than six footnotes to accompany the passage, explaining the following terms to the TT reader: elvish , chakobsa , lensman , Marvel , Stan Lee and otakunidad.
Above, we noted that the Vintage edition includes a series of explanatory footnotes.
The function of the inserted footnotes appears to be threefold. A third and final category of footnotes elucidates the relatively few cases where English words or phrases have been left untranslated in the main text, as is the case with the following pun:. The non-translation of the second sentence was motivated by the realization that the word play would not come out in Spanish. Whether the joke is still funny when it needs to be explained in a footnote is another issue. Regarding the translation of the you -form, several observations can be made which point in the same direction, namely a tendency to make the you -figure less salient and more generic.
In other contexts, the you -reference disappears. In only one of the three cases discussed in 2. In the other cases, your is substituted by a demonstrative modifier or a definite article. As a consequence, the solidarity between the narrator and the narratee decreases. The TT narratee becomes less specific as well.
Visor de obras.
Whereas the ST deliberately exploits the singular-plural ambiguity of the you -form, the Spanish translation consistently addresses the narratee with the plural ustedes :. Interestingly, even in those cases where a Spanish second person singular construction occurs in the ST, the translation replaces it by a plural equivalent:.
Where in the ST you is modified in expressions such as you all or some of you , the translation leaves out this qualification, thus giving a more generic meaning to you :. We already mentioned that forms of address such as Negro were translated by the more neutral mi gente. A similar mechanism is at work in the translation of players , of which we noted above that it creates a strong emotional bond between the interlocutors:.
Players : never never never fuck with a bitch named Awilda. Socios : nunca, nunca, nunca se metan con un perra llamada Awilda.
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Porque cuando se ponga a awildar, van a saber lo que es dolor de verdad. In most of these cases, although the translation does convey solidarity meanings, the in-group effect becomes weaker, and the TT often loses the racial and sexual undertones present in the ST. In section 2. Our translation analysis has shown that in the TT textual heteroglossia and forms of address equally interact with each other, and contribute to a displacement of the solidarity mechanisms.
In the ST, the occurrence of heteroglossia is very closely connected with the identity of the characters, which are Dominican-American, but also represent and question certain stereotypes within that community, such as the macho versus the nerd. The relation between the narrator and the narratee is also often personalized in marked forms of address. In translation, the heteroglossic elements are more geographically than sociologically marked.
Especially the sociological characterization of the narrator and the narratee appears to be very difficult to render in translation.
Amiga, deja de disculparte [Girl, Stop Apologizing]
The main forms of heteroglossia are now the shared nerd and sci-fi interest of the narrator and the narratee, and the use of Dominican Spanish. At the same time, we have seen that the narratee is less personalized and more generic. In fact, what happens is that the narratee moves somewhat closer to the implied reader of the TT. The use of plural ustedes , or of mi gente quite consistently evokes the idea of Dominican people in general, more than is the case with the often more personalized you , racial Negro or sexist players in the ST. This leads to the question as to whether textual heteroglossia still has a solidarity-enhancing function in the translation.
We think it still does, but now the solidarity affects perhaps less the relation between the narrator and the narratee, and more clearly the relation between the implied reader of the TT and the implied author of the ST. When the translators state in the editorial note of the Vintage volume that they have maintained the Spanish of the original, they seem to refer to an implied Dominican author.
According to May 4; quoted in Munday 16 translations have a tendency to reduce the heteroglossia present in the ST, i. As the binary racial regime of the U. These, too, are less ambiguous than those of the ST. Both the Mondadori and the Vintage edition are directed towards a more stable, monistic audience than the original, which simultaneously addresses insider and outsider readers.
Here, a marked difference emerges between the two Spanish editions. Translated by Achy O bejas. Barcelona: Mondadori.
New York: Vintage editions. Grutman notes that the concept of heteroglossia has been mistranslated as referring to the literary representation of multilingualism, which is one reason why he introduced the concept of heterolingualism Grutman 40, n. The process of translation leads to a reshuffling of these tacit assumptions, beliefs, and norms by adding to the text new layers of enunciation and reception.
See Browder Although several U. In some definitions, race is seen as an aspect of ethnicity, in others the two terms are approached as mutually exclusive categories.
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